# Piping

GAS TANKS TYPES

Gas tanks can be independent type or not self supported.
Independent tanks are completely self-supporting and do not form part of the ship’s hull and do not contribute to the hull strength. Depending mainly on design pressure, there are three different types of independent tanks for gas carriers A, B and C. Membrane tanks are not self-supporting tanks; they consist of a thin laye...

EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

When a fluid is in motion, it must move in such a way that mass is conserved. To see how mass conservation places restrictions on the velocity field, consider the steady flow of a fluid from the inlet to the outlet of a pipe, the flow do not vary with time. The inflow and outflow are one-dimensional, so that the velocity and density over the area are constant.

BERNOULLI EQUATION

Bernoulli Equation is a statement of the conservation of energy principle appropriate for dynamic fluids. The behavior of "Bernoulli effect" is the lowering of fluid pressure in regions where the flow velocity is increased. At high velocity flow through the constriction, kinetic energy must increase at the expense of pressure energy.
Bernoulli equation
v2/2 + p/r + gh = c...

PRESSURE LOSS

HYDRAULIC POWER

Hydraulic power – power transmitted from a pump trough a piping system carrying pressurized fluid to a hydraulic motor which transforms it into mechanical power. The mechanical power used to run the pump (necessary shaft power) is transformed into pressure and then transformed again in mechanical power (delivered power) by a hydraulic motor with efficiency depending on system design.
Hydraulic ...

HYDRAULIC DIAMETER

Hydraulic diameter is used when handling flow in noncircular tubes and channels. Using this term one can calculate many things in the same way as for a round tube. Hydraulic diameter is four times hydraulic radius.
Hydraulic diameter
dh = 4S / P
where: S = sectional area (m2)
P = perimeter of wetted area(m)
n = rpm
D = displacement (cm3 / rev)
Flow rate
Q = nD / 1000
...

RECOMMENDED FLOW VELOCITY

HOW TO CHOOSE A VALVE

There are lot of types of valves, gate valves, needle valves, buterfly valves, ball valves...for general use, for fuels, for corrosive agents, different sizes and different designs. Getting to choose the right valve for a specific purpose might be sometimes difficult choice. Here we have some general guidance to pick the right one but we strongly recommend to carefully read the producer documenta...