# Piping

GAS TANKS TYPES Gas tanks can be independent type or not self supported. Independent tanks are completely self-supporting and do not form part of the ship’s hull and do not contribute to the hull strength. Depending mainly on design pressure, there are three different types of independent tanks for gas carriers A, B and C. Membrane tanks are not self-supporting tanks; they consist of a thin laye...
EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
When a fluid is in motion, it must move in such a way that mass is conserved. To see how mass conservation places restrictions on the velocity field, consider the steady flow of a fluid from the inlet to the outlet of a pipe, the flow  do not vary with time. The inflow and outflow are one-dimensional, so that the velocity  and density over the area are constant.
BERNOULLI EQUATION Bernoulli Equation is a statement of the conservation of energy principle appropriate for dynamic fluids. The behavior of  "Bernoulli effect" is the lowering of fluid pressure in regions where the flow velocity is increased.  At high velocity flow through the constriction, kinetic energy must increase at the expense of pressure energy.   Bernoulli equation v2/2   +  p/r +  gh = c...
PRESSURE LOSS
Pressure loss in pipes is determined by  friction, vertical pipe difference or elevation, changes of kinetic energy. To calculate pressure loss  in straight pipes or piping components following formulas are used.
HYDRAULIC POWER Hydraulic power – power transmitted from a pump trough a piping system carrying pressurized fluid to a hydraulic motor which transforms it into mechanical power. The mechanical power used to run the pump (necessary shaft power) is transformed into pressure and then transformed again in mechanical power (delivered power) by a hydraulic motor with efficiency depending on system design. Hydraulic ...
HYDRAULIC DIAMETER Hydraulic diameter is used when handling flow in noncircular tubes and channels. Using this term one can calculate many things in the same way as for a round tube. Hydraulic diameter is four times hydraulic radius. Hydraulic diameter dh = 4S / P where:  S = sectional area (m2) P = perimeter of wetted area(m) n = rpm D = displacement (cm3 / rev) Flow rate Q = nD / 1000 ...
RECOMMENDED FLOW VELOCITY In fluid dynamics the flow velocity, or velocity field of a fluid is a vector field which is used to mathematically describe the motion of a fluid. The length of the flow velocity vector is the flow speed.
HOW TO CHOOSE A VALVE There are lot of types of valves, gate valves, needle valves, buterfly valves, ball valves...for general use, for fuels, for corrosive agents, different sizes and different designs. Getting to choose the right valve for a specific purpose might be sometimes difficult choice. Here we have some general guidance to pick the right one but we strongly recommend to carefully read the producer documenta...